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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)[1]
Motto: Türkmenistan Bitaraplygyň watanydyr
("Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality")[2][3]
Anthem: Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
("State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")
Location of Turkmenistan (red)
Location of Turkmenistan (red)
Capital
and largest city
Ashgabat
37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333
Official languagesTurkmen[4]
Language of inter-ethnic communicationRussian
Other languagesUzbekKazakhEastern ArmenianAzerbaijaniBalujiKurmanjiUkrainianPersian and others
Ethnic groups
(2012)
Religion
Demonym(s)Turkmenistani[5]
Turkmen[6]
Turkmenian
GovernmentUnitary de facto one-party presidential republic under a totalitarian dictatorship[7]
• President
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Raşit Meredow
LegislatureNational Council[8]
People's Council
Assembly
Independence from Russia and Soviet Union
• Conquest
1879
13 May 1925
• Declared state sovereignty
22 August 1990
• From the Soviet Union
27 October 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
18 May 1992
Area
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi)[9] (52nd)
• Water (%)
4.9
Population
• 2020 estimate
6,031,187[10] (113th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (221st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$112.659 billion[11]
• Per capita
$19,526[11]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$42.764 billion[11]
• Per capita
$7,411[11]
Gini (1998)40.8
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.715[12]
high · 111th
CurrencyTurkmenistan manat (TMT)
Time zoneUTC+05 (TMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+993
ISO 3166 codeTM
Internet TLD.tm

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan, also known as Turkmenia, is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of the country. The population of the country is about 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia. Citizens of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmenistanis, Turkmenians or Turkmens.