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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Singapore

Republic of Singapore

3 other official names
    • Republik Singapura  (Malay)
    • 新加坡共和国  (Chinese)
    • சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு  (Tamil)
Motto: Majulah Singapura  (Malay)
(English: "Onward Singapore")
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
(English: "Onward Singapore")
Location of Singapore
1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283°N 103.833°E / 1.283; 103.833Coordinates: 1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283°N 103.833°E / 1.283; 103.833
Official languages
National languageMalay
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Halimah Yacob
Lee Hsien Loong
Sundaresh Menon
Tan Chuan-Jin
Pritam Singh
3 June 1959
16 September 1963
9 August 1965
8 August 1967
• Total
728.3 km2 (281.2 sq mi)[3] (176th)
• 2020 estimate
Decrease 5,685,800[b] (115th)
• Density
7,804/km2 (20,212.3/sq mi) (2nd)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $600.063 billion[5] (38th)
• Per capita
Increase $102,742[5] (2nd)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $374.394 billion[5] (38th)
• Per capita
Increase $64,103[5] (8th)
Gini (2017)Steady 45.9[6]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.938[7]
very high · 11th
CurrencySingapore dollar (S$) (SGD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Singapore Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft
Calling code+65
ISO 3166 codeSG
Internet TLD.sg


Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Straits of Malacca to the west, the Riau Islands (Indonesia) to the south, and the South China Sea to the east. The country's territory is composed of one main island, 63 satellite islands and islets, and one outlying islet, the combined area of which has increased by 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation projects. It has the second greatest population density in the world. With a multicultural population and recognizing the need to respect cultural identities, Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese and Tamil. English is the lingua franca. Multiracialism is enshrined in the constitution, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, and politics.