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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Russia

Russian Federation

  • Российская Федерация
  • Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
("State Anthem of the Russian Federation")
Russia on the globe with unrecognized territories in light green.[a]
Russia on the globe with unrecognized territories in light green.[a]
and largest city
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic[5]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
18 March 2014
4 July 2020
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[6] 17,125,191 km2 (Including Crimea)[7] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[8] (including swamps)
• 2021 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 146,171,015
  • (including Crimea)[9]
  • Neutral decrease 143,759,445
  • (excluding Crimea)[9]
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $4,328 trillion[10] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $29,485[10] (50th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.710 trillion[10] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $11,654[10] (59th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[11]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[12]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD


Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17 million square kilometres, and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has the most borders of any country in the world, with sixteen sovereign nations. It has a population of 146.2 million; and is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the nation's second-largest city and cultural centre. Russians are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe.