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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Russia

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia on the globe, with disputed territory shown in light green.[a]
Russia on the globe, with disputed territory shown in light green.[a]
and largest city
55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722
Official language
and national language
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under a centralised authoritarian government[6][7][8][9][10]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
18 March 2014
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[11] 17,125,191 km2 (including Crimea)[12] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[13] (including swamps)
• 2022 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 145,478,097
  • (including Crimea)[14]
  • Neutral decrease 143,054,637
  • (excluding Crimea)[14]
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.365 trillion[15] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $30,013[15] (58th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.829 trillion[15] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $12,575[15] (68th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[16]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[17]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD


Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17,125,191 square kilometres (6,612,073 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and borders sixteen sovereign nations, the most of any country in the world. It is the ninth-most populous country and the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 145.5 million. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan.