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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Romania


România  (Romanian)
Anthem: "Deșteaptă-te, române!"
("Awaken thee, Romanian!")
EU-Romania (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Romania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100
Official languagesRomanian[1]
Recognised minority
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Klaus Iohannis
Florin Cîțu[5]
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
• First Romanian polities
c. 895 / 1247a
c. 1360
• First common rule under Michael the Brave
24 January 1859
9 May 1877/1878c
14 March 1881
1918 / 1920e
27 December 1989[6][7][8]
• Total
238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)
• Water (%)
• 1 January 2020 estimate
Decrease 19,317,984[9] (61st)
• 2011 census
• Density
84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) (117th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $636.481 billion[10] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $32,950[10] (44th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $289.130 billion[10] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $14,968[10] (56th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 34.8[11]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.828[12]
very high · 49th
CurrencyRomanian leu (RON)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+40
ISO 3166 codeRO
Internet TLD.rof
  1. A Vlach duke ruling Transylvania around 895, Gelou, is mentioned alongside Glad and Menumorut in the late 12th century Gesta Hungarorum (the reliability of which is debated); a 1247 royal charter, known as the Diploma of the Joannites, mentions four Romanian keneziates (or polities) in Muntenia and Oltenia.
  2. The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
  3. Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognised in 1878.
  4. Romania in the interwar period, following the proclamation of the union in 1918 including Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania, parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș, established after the Paris Peace Conference closing World War I in 1920.
  5. Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 upon the proclamation of the People's Republic and was changed with the new constitution upon its adoption on 21 August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime fell on 22 December 1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.
  6. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.


Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east, and has its opening to the Black Sea. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate, and covers an area of 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi), with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe, and the sixth-most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, while other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați.