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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Latvia

Republic of Latvia
Anthem: Dievs, svētī Latviju!
(English: "God Bless Latvia!")
Location of Latvia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Latvia (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
56°57′N 24°6′E / 56.950°N 24.100°E / 56.950; 24.100
Official languagesLatviana
Recognized languagesLivonian
Ethnic groups
Secular state[2]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Egils Levits
Krišjānis Kariņš
Ināra Mūrniece
from Germany and the Soviet Union
18 November 1918
26 January 1921
7 November 1922
21 August 1991
• Joined the EU
1 May 2004
• Total
64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) (122nd)
• Water (%)
2.09 (2015)[6]
• 2020 estimate
1,907,675[7] (147th)
• 2011 census
• Density
29.6/km2 (76.7/sq mi) (147th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$70.320 billion[9]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$40.830 billion[9]
• Per capita
Gini (2021)Negative increase 35.7[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.866[11]
very high · 37th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+371
ISO 3166 codeLV
Internet TLD.lvc
  1. Latvian is the sole official language.[12][13] Livonian is considered an indigenous language and has special legal status.[14] Latgalian written language and Latvian Sign Language also have special legal status.[15]
  2. Latvia is de jure continuous with its declaration of 18 November 1918.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.


Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia covers an area of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi), with a population of 1.9 million. The country has a temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Riga. Latvians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts; and speak Latvian, one of the only two surviving Baltic languages. Russians are the most prominent minority in the country, at almost a quarter of the population.