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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan
Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh)
Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Anthem: Menıñ Qazaqstanym
(English: "My Kazakhstan")
Land controlled by the Republic of Kazakhstan shown in dark green.
Land controlled by the Republic of Kazakhstan shown in dark green.
CapitalNur-Sultan
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.27750°N 76.89583°E / 43.27750; 76.89583
Official languagesKazakh
Co-official
Russian[a]
Ethnic groups
(2020)[2]
Religion
(2020)[3]
Demonym(s)Kazakhstani[d][5]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Askar Mamin
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Mazhilis
Formation
1465
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declaration of Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Independence from USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
Area
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 19,082,467[6] (64th)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $569.813 billion[7] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $30,178[7] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $179.332 billion[7] (55th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,686[7] (69th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 27.5[8]
low
HDI (2019)Increase 0.825[9]
very high · 51st
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Date formatyyyy.dd.mm[e]
Driving sideright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country located mainly in Central Asia. It borders Russia in the north, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south. The capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana. It was moved from Almaty, the country's largest city, in 1997. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country, the world's largest Muslim-majority country by land area, and the ninth-largest country in the world. It has a population of 18.8 million, and one of the lowest population densities in the world, at fewer than 6 people per square kilometre.