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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in India

Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
(see other local names)
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"[2][3]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green; regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green
CapitalNew Delhi
28°36′50″N 77°12′30″E / 28.61389°N 77.20833°E / 28.61389; 77.20833
Largest city
Official languages
Recognised national languagesNone[8][9][10]
Recognised regional languages
Native languages447 languages[c]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra Modi
N. V. Ramana
Om Birla
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
• Dominion
15 August 1947
• Republic
26 January 1950
• Total
3,287,263[2] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[d] (7th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Neutral increase 1,352,642,280[15][16] (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[17][18] (2nd)
• Density
413.4/km2 (1,070.7/sq mi) (19th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $10.207 trillion[19] (3rd)
• Per capita
Increase $7,333[19] (122nd)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.050 trillion[19] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,191[19] (145th)
Gini (2011)35.7[20]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.645[21]
medium · 131st
CurrencyIndian rupee (₹) (INR)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date format
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft[22]
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN
Internet TLD.in (others)


India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.