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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in France

French Republic

République française (French)[1]
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
EU-France (orthographic projection).svg
France in the World (+Antarctica claims).svg
Location of France (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

and largest city
48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.850°N 2.350°E / 48.850; 2.350
Official language
and national language
Nationality (2018)
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Emmanuel Macron
Jean Castex
Gérard Larcher
Richard Ferrand
National Assembly
• Reign of Clovis I as King of the Franks
August 843
22 September 1792
• Founded the EEC[III]
1 January 1958
4 October 1958
• Total
640,679 km2 (247,368 sq mi)[4] (42nd)
• Water (%)
0.86 (as of 2015)[5]
551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi)[V] (50th)
• Metropolitan France (Cadastre)
543,940.9 km2 (210,016.8 sq mi)[VI][6] (50th)
• May 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 67,413,000[7] (20th)
• Density
104.7109/km2 (106th)
• Metropolitan France, estimate as of May 2021
Neutral increase 65,239,000[8] (23rd)
• Density
116/km2 (300.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $2,954,000,000,000[9] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $45,454[9] (26th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2,551,000,000,000[9] (7th)
• Per capita
Decrease $39,257[9] (20th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 28.5[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.901[11]
very high · 26th
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time[X])
Note: various other time zones are observed in overseas France.[IX]
Although France is in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 25 February 1940, upon WW2 German occupation, Central European Time/UTC+01:00 was enforced as standard time,[1] with a +0:50:39 offset (and +1:50:39 during DST) from Paris LMT (UTC+0:09:21).
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+33[XI]
ISO 3166 codeFR
Internet TLD.fr[XII]
Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq mi) and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89,179 km2 (34,432 sq mi). Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi).


France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname and Brazil in the Americas. The country's eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.413 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of twelve.