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Protection & Enforcement of IPRs in Australia

Commonwealth of Australia
Anthem: Advance Australia Fair[N 1]
A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest citySydney
Official languagesNone at the federal level
National languageEnglish[N 2]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
David Hurley
Anthony Albanese
House of Representatives
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
3 March 1986
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
1.79 (2015)[6]
• 2022 estimate
Increase 25,974,600[7] (53rd)
• 2021 census
• Density
3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi) (192nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.605 trillion[9] (18th)
• Per capita
Increase $61,941[9] (19th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.748 trillion[9] (13th)
• Per capita
Increase $67,464[9] (11th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 32.5[10]
medium · 16th
HDI (2021)Increase 0.951[11]
very high · 5th
CurrencyAustralian dollar ($) (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+8; +9.5; +10 (Various[N 3])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8; +9.5; +10;
+10.5; +11
(Various[N 3])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+61
ISO 3166 codeAU
Internet TLD.au


Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.